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The risk of death to Officers and men differs considerably, and it would only be possible from the point of view of an assurance company to charge the same extra premium for both, if the numbers of Officers and men effecting assurance were in the same proportion as exists between Officers and men in the whole Army, and if the average sum assured were the same for Officers as for men. It may be that for the purpose of the calculation of this partic- ular class of war risk premiums that this way of looking at matters is more correct than the assumption that the lives are only at risk when at the seat of war. It should, however, be borne in mind, that the war is attended by another important risk, viz., " pestilential diseases.'^ The destructive nature of the pestilential diseases surpasses even that of battles them- selves. They clearly demonstrate that the diffusion of pestilence not only diminishes the fighting power of the com- batant parties, but also paves the way to the increase of war risk.

It is difficult to imagine such a state of affairs existing in England, though it is perhaps possible in a country where conscription is to rule. It certainly is if an extra premium is paid immediately a man is enrolled as a volunteer for active service. It affords me a great pleasure to allude briefly, in the following lines, to the damage our army and navy had to suffer during our late war with China, that lasted from 1894 to 1895.

It may be noted that the death-rate for the first year of the war, obtained from the Officers of the combined forces, was 7.8 per cent., falling in the second 3'ear to 4.13, and remaining almost at the same rate for the third year, namely 4.24. As already explained, all the official War Office returns assumed the period of risk to commence on landing in South Africa, and to end upon leaving that country. A mere consideration of the battles them- selves without due regard to those circumstances shall inevitably end in failure, for each battle is beset with conditions peculiar to it, and the rate of the risk necessarily varies from one battle to another.

From an assurance point of view Officers and men must nearly always be kept apart, and to give premiums founded upon their combined expe- rience is likely to lead Officers to imagine that a war risk can be covered by such premiums, and to be disappointed when they find out their mis- take. The assured lives on the other hand were assumed to commence their period of risk before sailing from the United King- dom, and to end it on their return; thus a number of Yeomanry were assumed to be at risk who were kept at home for some months before sailing. So far, reference has been made only to the risk of the actual fight- ing.

Landre 10 On the Improvement in Longevity in the United States During the Nine- teenth Century. Gore 30 War Risks, with Special Reference to tlie War in South Africa, 1899- 1902. England and Wales are taken instead of the entire United Kingdom, because it is for them only that the facts throughout the whole period are fully available. Years of a Years of a Months of Exposure 0.2 Yearly Months of Exposure Yearly Exposure to Risk. Durch die ganze L^ntersuchung hindurch wird die kaiserliche Macht in drei Klassen eingetheilt : erstens die Reguliiren und Freiwilligen.

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Had statistics been available a comparison between the death-rates of cavalry as distinguished from other branches of the regulars, with the Yeomanry, would have been interesting. in welchen 74 War Hisks, with Reference to War in /S. Die Resultate werden dann mit denen friiher mit Bezug auf die ganze kaiserliche Kriegsmacht festgestellten verglichen. The annual death-rates practically give the annual premium per £100 assured according to the war experience, including the risk from death from normal mortality, and make allowance for the return of a portion of the premium for any unexpired fraction of a year. Verschiedene andere Verzeichnisse werden gegeben und besprochen, die dann in ein Verzeichnis auslaufen, welches die jiihrliche Rate fur 100 Pfund fiir jede Altersgruppe angiebt. They fell considerably below the rates deduced from the mortality of the German Army during the Franco-German War, and compare even more favour- ably with the death-rates experienced by the Northern Army during the American Civil War. Es wird jedoeh nicht vorgeschlagen, dass die Priimien zur Deckung von Risiko in Kriegsfallen mit dem Alter der zu Versichernden ver- schieden sein sollten. 2.03 1.22 .82 .41 .81 1.22 .81 1.22 .41 2 03 Aug " Sept. Lundgren 915 Valuation, in Actions for Damages for Negligence, of Human Life Destroyed or Impaired. Trefzer 1104 ox THE I]*IPKOVEMEXT IX LOXGEVITY DUKIXG THE XIXETEEXTH CEXTURY. For that purpose I append the following brief table. En analysant ces tables, on voit, entre autres, que la mortality due aux blessures etait beaucoup plus forte pendant la premiere annee de la guerre que pendant la seconde ou la troisieme. ' Mortality in the United States {Robert George Hann).

Dawson 929 Relationship of Initial Expenses and Selection to Valuation. 954 Du controle par I'Etat des entreprises d'assurances privies. 963 Die staatlichf Kontrolle von Lebensversicherungs-Gesellschaften in Deutsch- land. James Chisholm 1007 Forme donnee en Suisse au contrule de I'Etat sur les Societes d'Assurances sur la Vie. Rosselet 1057 Die Bedeutung des Priimienreservefonds nach dem deutschen Privatver- sicherungsgesetze. Broecker 1076 Die allgemeinen technischen Grundsatze, welche bei der staatlichen Kon- trolle der Lebensversicherungs-Anstalten im Hinblick auf die Inter- nationalen Interessen des Versicherungswesens zu beachten sind. Schonwiese 1095 Die technischen Grundsatze, welche bei der staatlichen Kontrolle zu beo- bachten sind, F. In any attempt to consider the subject of the increase of human longevity in the United Kingdom during the nineteenth century, the first fact that strikes us is the remarkable character of the period under review. The surest n-ay of realizing this in its bearing on our present inquiry will be to glance at the growth of population, as shown by the census returns. Des tables comparent aussi les taux de mortalite pendant diverses periodes de la guerre. " May " June " 85 1 .28 .56 40431 6 29 35 .15 .72 .87 Total 133343 69 129 198 i .52 .97 i 1.49 Wa? Spen- cer Campbell Thomson Ill On the Mortality of the Japanese. — '■^i— ((MCO-*'* ® I rtrtrtrtr-l^i-H^r-l i-H,-,rt^rtrtrtrtrtrtr-1f-l^rtr-lr-1l-lrti-Hrtr-] (N 3^^ M oi ^1 r7 ococci'-^aoaccccicociociooi^'— ICO'— iciirsotti^t^Oi— I S'l'MS^l COC^ll MSaf MCMCvl Ogf Nt Mf MCOCOCOCMa JCOogc MOJCOe O t-- -^ o in m m cs :s r- 'i? Several interesting points are brought into prominence by this table. If we take the deaths from other causes exactly the opposite is found to obtain. 465 4.231 5.731 13 14,4.50 18 47 65 1.246 3.253 4.499 14 9,468 7 27 34 .739 2.852 3.591 15 8,407 4 16 20 .476 1.903 2.379 16 4,692 2,5.59 12 12 2 . 563 2.735 1R 1,829 1,621 1,.506 9 2 1.093 1.093 19 9 9 1 . Diese Tabellen werden dann analysiert und es wird unter Anderm darauf hinge\'iesen, dass die Sterbe-Rate, herbeigefiihrt durch Wunden, wahrend des ersten Jahres viel grosser war, als im zweiten oder dritten Kriegsjahre. " 2510 2536 2535 2536 25.39 2533 2.526 2.550 2570 2580 2641 2814 1 3 2 1 3 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 4 4 5 4 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 5 .40 1.18 .79 .39 1.19 .39 1.18 I.