Describe the process of radiocarbon dating
This carbon dioxide, now radioactive with carbon-14, is otherwise chemically indistinguishable from the normal carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is slightly lighter because it contains normal carbon-12.
Radioactive and non-radioactive carbon dioxide mix throughout the atmosphere, and dissolve into the oceans.
Back in the 1940s, the American chemist Willard Libby used this fact to determine the ages of organisms long dead.
Most carbon atoms have six protons and six neutrons in their nuclei and are called carbon 12. But a tiny percentage of carbon is made of carbon 14, or radiocarbon, which has six protons and eight neutrons and is not stable: half of any sample of it decays into other atoms after 5,700 years.
CARBON-14 IS ABSORBED (Figure 1b): Plants absorb this carbon-14 during photosynthesis.
When animals eat the plants, the carbon-14 enters their bodies.
In contrast, radiocarbon forms continually today in the earth’s upper atmosphere.
And as far as we know, it has been forming in the earth’s upper atmosphere since the atmosphere was made back on Day Two of Creation Week (part of the expanse, or firmament, described in Genesis 1:6–8). Cosmic rays from outer space are continually bombarding the upper atmosphere of the earth, producing fast-moving neutrons (subatomic particles carrying no electric charge) (Figure 1a).1 These fast-moving neutrons collide with atoms of nitrogen-14, the most abundant element in the upper atmosphere, converting them into radiocarbon (carbon-14) atoms.
To compare bond polarities, compare the difference in the electronegativities between the atoms.Through photosynthesis carbon dioxide enters plants and algae, bringing radiocarbon into the food chain.Radiocarbon then enters animals as they consume the plants (Figure 1b).A form of radiometric dating used to determine the age of organic remains in ancient objects, such as archaeological specimens, on the basis of the half-life of carbon-14 and a comparison between the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 in a sample of the remains to the known ratio in living organisms. A technique for measuring the age of organic remains based on the rate of decay of carbon 14.
The carbon 14 present in an organism at the time of its death decays at a steady rate, and so the age of the remains can be calculated from the amount of carbon 14 that is left. The cells of all living things contain carbon atoms that they take in from their environment.So even we humans are radioactive because of trace amounts of radiocarbon in our bodies.