Carbon dating science project
Diamond and graphite occur naturally on Earth, and they also can be produced synthetically; they are chemically inert but do combine with oxygen at high temperatures, just as amorphous carbon does.
Fullerene was serendipitously discovered in 1985 as a synthetic product in the course of laboratory experiments to simulate the chemistry in the atmosphere of giant stars.
Natural deposits are worked by crushing, by gravity and flotation separations, and by removal of diamonds by their adherence to a layer of grease on a suitable table.
The following products result: (1) diamond proper—distorted cubic crystalline gem-quality stones varying from colourless to red, pink, blue, green, or yellow; (2) bort—minute dark crystals of abrasive but not gem quality; (3) ballas—randomly oriented crystals of abrasive quality; (4) macles—triangular pillow-shaped crystals that are industrially useful; and (5) carbonado—mixed diamond–graphite crystallites containing other impurities.
Carbon as an element was discovered by the first person to handle charcoal from fire.
Charcoal is used as an absorptive and filtering agent and as a fuel and was once widely used as an ingredient in gunpowder.It was later found to occur naturally in tiny amounts on Earth and in meteorites., “to write,” reflects its property of leaving a dark mark when rubbed on a surface.The primary source of diamonds is a soft bluish peridotic rock called kimberlite (after the famous deposit at Kimberley, South Africa), found in volcanic structures called pipes, but many diamonds occur in alluvial deposits presumably resulting from the weathering of primary sources.
Isolated finds around the world in regions where no sources are indicated have not been uncommon.In 1961 the isotope On a weight basis, carbon is 19th in order of elemental abundance in Earth’s crust, and there are estimated to be 3.5 times as many carbon atoms as silicon atoms in the universe.