Age cave dating
Other artefacts including cave art, sculpted figures, decorated bone tools and jewellery have been found in Europe, dating back 40,000 years ago.But researchers have concluded that these artefacts must have been created by modern humans who were spreading across Europe after their arrival from Africa.Denisovan and Neanderthal DNA recovered from soil in layers of the cave dating to the same time period confirms overlapping occupations of the cave by the two groups.The other team of researchers, Douka and colleagues, radiocarbon dated the younger (late Middle and Upper Paleolithic) layers of the cave, as well as some bone fragments, and used a Bayesian modeling approach to combine data from multiple kinds of dating methods (including radiocarbon, thermoluminescence, and genetic) to identify the best supported estimates of occupation history in the cave.These hominins included our close relatives, the Denisovans and Neanderthals, whose genomes show a history of interbreeding with each other (and with some anatomically modern human populations).
For over 300,000 years, this cave was the home to various groups of archaic hominins.We know surprisingly little about who lived in the cave over different periods throughout its history, including when exactly the different human groups lived there (and whether they overlapped).Answering these very basic questions has been surprisingly difficult.Their best-supported model, that takes into account the dates obtained by Jacobs ., indicates that Neanderthals and Denisovans lived in the same region for an extended period of time.
At some point, Neanderthals stopped living in the region, but Denisovans persisted until at least 76,200-51,600 (the age of the last known Denisovan fossil).
By correlating dated strata with fossil remains and DNA present in the soil, they were able to determine that Denisovans were living in the cave by at least 200,000 years ago and probably persisted until about 55,000 years ago.